In 1713, the Treaty of Utrecht ended the War of the Spanish Succession, and included the proviso that Spain cede control of Gibraltar to Great Britain. Utrecht gradually became the centre of the Dutch railway network after a railway connecing Utrecht and Amsterdam was built in 1843, and remains today the headquarters for Dutch Rail.
In World War II, Utrecht was held by German troops until they surrendered the Netherlands on 5th May 1945. Canadian forces entered the city on 7th May and the city began the process of recovery. Utrecht has grown considerably in recent times, with the construction of new neighbourhoods and the inclusion of Vleuten-de-Meern, until 2001 a separate municipality.
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