Gallup was founded in 1891 as a railhead for the Atlantic and Pacific Railroad. The city was named after David Gallup, a paymaster for the Atlantic and Pacific Railroad. It is the most populous city between Albuquerque, New Mexico and Flagstaff, Arizona. Gallup is sometimes called the "Indian Capital of the World", for its location in the heart of the Native American lands, and the presence of Navajo, Zuni, Hopi and other tribes. One-third of the city's populations have Native American roots. Gallup has references of the huge impact of the Native American cultures found in and around Gallup. However, the city is criticized for its slums.
As of the census of 2000, there were 20,209 people, 6,810 households, and 4,869 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,513.7 people per square mile (584.5/km²). There were 7,349 housing units at an average density of 550.5/sq mi (212.5/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 40.11%25 White, 36.64%25 Native American, 1.43%25 Asian, 1.08%25 African American, 0.09%25 Pacific Islander, 14.77%25 from other races, and 5.87%25 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 33.15%25 of the population.
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